Course Description

Provides a fundamental understanding of the engineering properties and mechanical behavior of soil materials and their main applications in geotechnical engineering practice. Main course topics: soil classification, compaction, permeability, seepage, in-situ stresses, compressibility (consolidation), and shear strength.

Chapter 01 – Introduction - Rock cycle, Weathering, Origin of Soils, Clay mineralogy.

Chapter 02 - Phase Diagrams & Soil Classification - Weight-volume relationships, Specific gravity, moisture content, Grain size distribution, Stoke’s law, hydrometer analysis, Atterberg limits, Soil Classification Systems (USCS/IS).

Chapter 03 – Compaction - Compaction principles, Standard/modified compaction methods, factors affecting compaction, field compaction methods, factors affecting field compaction, specifications of field compaction.

Chapter 04 – Permeability - Bernoulli’s equation, Darcy’s law, Hydraulic conductivity, equivalent hydraulic conductivity in stratified and compacted soils.

Chapter 05 – Seepage - Laplace equation of continuity, Flow nets, Seepage calculations from flow nets, Uplift pressure under hydraulic structures, Seepage through an earth dam.

Chapter 06- In situ stresses - Effective stress principle; in situ stresses; stresses in saturated soil with upward and downward seepage; seepage force; capillary rise in soils.

Chapter 07 - Stresses in Soil Mass - Stress state; Mohrs’ circle; stress due to point load line load, strip load, circular load, rectangular load, and embankment load; stress path.

Chapter 08-Compressibility and consolidation of soil - Immediate settlement; 1-D consolidation; normal and overconsolidated clays; primary consolidation settlement; rate of consolidation; secondary consolidation

Chapter 09-Shear strength of soils - Sources of shear strength; Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion; direct shear test; drained and undrained behavior of sands; triaxial test; CD, CU, and UU triaxial tests; drained and undrained behavior of clays; small-strain stiffness

Reference Text Books:

- Principles of Geotechnical Engineering by B. M. Das, Seventh Edition, Cengage Learning, 2010.
- An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering by R. D. Holtz, W. D. Kovacs and T. C. Sheahan, Second Edition, Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2011.

Other Readings:

- Geotechnical Engineering – Principles and Practices by Donald P. Coduto, PHI Learning Private Ltd., (Indian Edition), 2009.
- Soil Mechanics and Foundations by Muni Budhu, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 2010.

Course Description

To provide the student with an understanding of various geotechnical testing methods and their applications. In addition, this course will focus on the following student abilities and educational outcomes:

- To design and conduct experiments; and
- To analyze and interpret data

Class Schedule

The following experiments (tentative) will be attempted to cover during the course of the semester (not necessarily in the same order). In the case of a change in order, students will be informed at least a week earlier.

- Visual Soil Classification and Water Content
- Sieve Analysis
- Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit
- Standard Proctor Test
- Filed Density Test
- Permeability
- Consolidation Test
- Direct Shear Test
- Unconfined Compression Test

Reference Text Books:

- Braja M. Das “Soil Mechanics Laboratory Manual”, Oxford University Press
- Class notes and handouts

Other Readings:

- Bardet, J.P. “Experimental Soil Mechanics” Prentice Hall

Course Description

To provide the student with an understanding of different foundation types, uses, and design principles. In addition, this course will focus on the following student abilities and educational outcomes:

- To select an appropriate type of foundation type for a given structure and
- To design the foundation system

Design of Foundations: Introduction

Shallow Foundations:

Limit Bearing Capacity and Design of Shallow Foundations – Footings with Vertical and Eccentric loads, Effect of Water Table on Bearing Capacity, Bearing Capacity from SPT, CPT, Safety Factors. Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Layered Soils (Special Cases).

Deep Foundations:

Analysis and Design of Axially Loaded Single Pile – Static Pile Capacity, Pile Groups, Group Efficiency, Settlement of Pile Groups.

Slopes and Retaining Walls

Retaining Walls, Earth Pressure Theories and Design, Reinforced Earth Structures, Slopes, Limit Equilibrium Methods- Ordinary method of slices, Swedish circle method, simplified Bishop method, Spencer method, Morgenstern and Price method

Reference Text Books:

- B. M. Das, “Principles of Foundation Engineering”, 7th Edition, Cengage Learning
- J. E. Bowles, “Foundation analysis and design”, 5th Ed., Mc Graw Hill

Other Readings:

- Class handouts

The course is divided into four modules with the objective of familiarizing students with the analysis, design of earth structures, and preparation of design reports. The course will also involve obtaining the soil design parameters through laboratory testing and visiting construction sites to gain insight into practical aspects of the overall execution/ design of a project.

Design Module I: Retaining walls

Design of Gravity Retaining Walls and Reinforced Earth Walls

Design Module I: Earth Retention Systems

Excavation Support, Braced Excavations

Design Module III: Slopes

Design of slopes for highway embankments with and without berms propose reinforcement techniques (soil nails, anchors, or geosynthetic reinforcement) to improve the stability of the slope

Design Module IV: Embankment dams

Design of earthen dams considering steady and sudden draw-down conditions

Reference Text Books:

- Bowles, “Foundation Analysis and Design”, 5th Ed., Mc Graw Hill
- Duncan, J.M., and Wright, S.G., “Soil Strength and Slope Stability”, John Wiley &Sons
- Das, B.M., “Advanced soil mechanics”, 3rd Ed., Taylor & Francis
- Das, B. M., “Principle of Foundation Engineering, Sixth Edition, Cengage Learning

Course Description

Provides a fundamental understanding of the engineering properties and mechanical behavior of soil materials and their main applications in geotechnical engineering practice through the Critical State Soil Mechanics Principles.

Chapter 01: Introduction to Soils and Rocks - Soil; Geology of soils and rocks; Soil particle sizes, shapes, and grading; Clays and clay-water system; soil indices and phase relationships.

Chapter 02: Stresses and Strains in Soils - Soil as a continuum; deformation of soil; effective stress principle; stress analysis; strain analysis; Mohr’s circle; dilatancy angle; zero-extension line.

Chapter 03: Stress and Strain Paths and Invariants - Stress paths (p’-q’ space, s-t space); Invariants of stress; Strain paths; Invariants of strain; Volumetric strains, Yield surfaces

Chapter 04: Laboratory Testing of Soils - Requirements of soil loading tests; boundary conditions; control of loading, pore pressure, and drainage; triaxial tests, oedometer tests, etc.

Chapter 05: Compression and One-dimensional Consolidation - Compression-Consolidation; Secondary compression; Isotropic compression of clay; over consolidation; theory of one-dimensional consolidation; time factor, average degree of consolidation.

Chapter 06: The Critical State Line and Roscoe Surface (NC Clays) - Families of undrained tests; families of drained tests; critical state line, Roscoe surface

Chapter 07: Behavior of Overconsolidated Soils - Drained tests; Hvorslev surface; critical state line; complete stage boundary surface

Chapter 08: Behavior of Sands: Introduction – Critical state line for sands

Reference Text Books:

- J.H. Atkinson and P.L. Bransby, “The mechanics of soils, An Introduction to CSM, University Series in Civil Engineering, Indo-American Books.
- R. D. Holtz, W. D. Kovacs and T. C. Sheahan, “Introduction to geotechnical engineering”, 2nd Ed., Prentice-Hall
- T. W. Lambe and R.V. Whitman, “Soil mechanics”, Wiley Publisher
- B.M. Das, “Advanced soil mechanics”, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis

Other Readings:

- Class handouts

Course Description

This course deals with the fundamentals of experimental studies of soil behavior, soil properties such as compressibility, shear strength, and dynamic soil properties through laboratory test methods. This course will also cover some of the advanced geotechnical field tests such as LWD and GPR, instrumentation and measurement techniques.

Class Schedule

The following experiments (tentative) will be attempted to cover during the course of the semester.

- Swell Pressure
- Consolidation
- Direct/Interfacial Shear test
- Triaxial tests (UU/CU)
- Resonant column test and
- Geosynthetic testing
- GPR
- FWD
- Inclinometers, etc.

Reference Text Books:

- Experimental Soil Mechanics by J. P. Bardet
- Advanced Soil Mechanics by Braja M. Das (McGraw Hill)
- Soil Mechanics Laboratory Manual by Braja M. Das (Oxford)

Other Readings:

- Class-handouts

Course Description

This course introduces the type of dynamic loads and fundamentals of vibrations and waves in a medium. Properties of soils under dynamic loading conditions will be discussed. The dynamic behavior of foundations and retaining structures under dynamic loading conditions will also be discussed. Earthquake and liquefaction phenomena are also discussed.

Tentative Lecture Topics:

Introduction -Fundamentals of Vibration; Single Degree of Freedom Systems; Free And Forced Vibrations; Damping- Elastic Stress Waves In A Bar; Equation of Motion In An Elastic Medium; Stress Waves In Elastic Half-Space; Laboratory Tests To Determine Dynamic Soil Properties; Field Test Measurements; Dynamic Behavior of Foundations, Ultimate Dynamic Bearing Capacity, Seismic Bearing Capacity And Settlement In Granular Soils-Dynamic Behavior of Retaining Walls; Liquefaction of Soils.

Reference Text Books:

- Principles of Soil Dynamics – B. M. Das and G. V. Ramana, Cengage Learning Publishers 2009.
- Dynamics of Structure and Foundation (A Unified Approach) – Chowdhury and Dasgupta

Course Description

This course will provide an understanding of various basic and advanced ground modification techniques, including Mechanical, Hydraulic, Chemical, and Thermal modifications.

Objectives:

- To learn the basic principles of ground modification techniques for weak natural soils
- To learn how theory and judgment are used to solve field problems
- To develop design skills - Project-based learning
- To gain analytical skills in solving ground modification-related problems

Course Content

Mechanical modification

- Compaction methods and compaction control
- Stone columns – Deep compaction
- Deep dynamic compaction
- Vibro techniques (displacement/replacement)
- Blasting

Hydraulic Modificatio n

- Sand Drains
- Wick Drains
- Vacuum consolidation

Chemical Modification

- Shallow soil stabilization
- Mixing technologies
- Grouting technologies

Thermal Modification

- Ground freezing
- Vitrification

Prerequisites:

Basic and Advanced Soil Mechanics courses

Grading Policy:

Term project |
30% |

Reference Text Books:

A series of handouts will be distributed during lectures. However, some references are listed.

- Engineering Principles of Ground Modification: Manfred R. Hausmann, 1990, McGraw Hill Company (Out of Print).
- Chemical Grouting and Soil Stabilization, Reuben Karol, Marcel Dekker Inc., 2003.

Other Readings:

- Class-handouts

Chapter 1 Slopes

Mechanics of limit equilibrium procedures; various LEMs – ordinary method of slices, Swedish circle method, simplified Bishop method, Spencer method, Morgenstern and Price method; analyses for rapid drawdown; seismic slope stability; design charts for slope stability; slope stabilization methods

Chapter 2 Embankment dams

Design of embankments; seepage principles; Darcy’s law; flow nets; seepage forces and uplift; seepage in earth dams; filter and drain design

Chapter 3 Retaining walls

At-rest earth pressure; Rankine’s and Coulomb’s active and passive earth pressures; retaining wall types; retaining wall design; reinforced retaining walls; gabion retaining walls; cantilever and anchored sheet piles

Chapter 4 Earth Retention Systems

Open cuts; trenching; braced excavations; excavation support; nailing; anchoring; basal heave

Reference Text Books:

- Bowles, “Foundation analysis and design”, 5th Ed., Mc Graw Hill
- Duncan, J.M., and Wright, S.G., “Soil strength and slope stability”, John Wiley &Sons
- Das, B.M., “Advanced soil mechanics”, 3rd Ed., Taylor & Francis
- Elias, V., and B.R. Christopher, (2001). “Mechanically stabilized earth walls and reinforced soil slopes, design, and construction guidelines”, Federal Highway Administration Report
- Sivakumar Babu, G. L. (2006). “Introduction to soil reinforcement and geosynthetics”, Universities Press
- Koerner, R. M. (2006). “Designing with geosynthetics”, 5th Ed., Prentice Hall